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29 sep

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18650 Lithium-ion battery packs – 1S80P

Af

This is the considerations I did when building 1S80P 18650 battery packs, for a DIY powerwall.

My design will go for 14 of these packs in series, for a nominal 48V system.

I wanted a design that was:

  • Very hard to short circuit, individual cell fuses, and generally as safe as possible
  • Mechanically stable
  • Balanced as much as possible
  • Expandable

The design is basically 4 4×5 18650 holders for the top and bottom. The cells I used were all tested for capacity (all above 2000 mAh) and self-discharge (all above 4,1V after several weeks/months), and are all Samsung cells. When assembling the packs I tried to mix the cells as much as possible: this should mean that on average the packs will be approximately the same capacity.

The packs have all the positive metal on the top, and the negative on the bottom. This means that any metal would have to touch both the top and the bottom, to short circuit the pack; this is not possible with a straight piece of metal. The connectors are going out on each side: if they went out the same side it would be possible to short-circuit them. Also, this will ensure that all the cells are discharged at the same rate: if they went out the same side the cells closest to the connectors would be loaded harder than the ones further away. This layout will not be a problem when they are put in series, they will just be alternating up-down. The busbars are shrink-wrapped on both ends, so only the connector is connected.

This means that the packs are impossible to short-circuit by themselves.

The packs are held together by 6 zip-ties: 2 at each end, and 2 in the middle. 5mm holes are drilled in the holders. The zip-ties go through the packs and around the busbars on each side.

The busbars are 4 wires of 2.5mm² wires, that are extracted from a standard AC cable. They are twisted together using a bench vise, and a cordless drill. They are then pre-bent using a template.

The connectors are 25mm² cable lugs. The two ends of the busbar go into the lug, meaning 8 wires of 2.5mm², or 20mm² in total. Depending on the exact calculations, this should be good up to 80A-160A. I intend to load the packs with at most 80A, and normally much less, so this should be fine.

The cells are connected to the busbars by fuse-wires. I used legs from 1/8W resistors, from a batch I tested beforehand. The resistor legs blows at 5A after some time, and in a few seconds at 6A. This should be well within spec, since the fuse-wires are mainly intended to isolate cells that go short-circuit: in this case the other 79 cells will be delivering current to the one bad cell, and the fuse wire should blow very quickly. This is another reason to not build too small packs: you need enough current available that the fuses will blow quickly.

The fuse wire is soldered to the cells, and soldered to the busbars. I used good lead-based solder, I tried crappier and lead-free solder but the results were poor. The positive side is soldered at about 340C, while the negative needs a bit more heat at 350C. For soldering to the busbars I go up to 380C, and move around in a circle since heat management is very much needed.

One concern I have heard from several people is that the cells are losing capacity by soldering. I did a test by soldering a few cells, and leaving a few control cells unsoldered. Then I capacity tested all the cells for a few cycles to check if any capacity is lost. I was unable to find any capacity loss on the soldered or unsoldered cells, so for me that is “myth busted”.

The packs are prepared for a future extension to 1s160P or similar. The holders are all oriented in the same way, and in such a way that 2 80P packs should be able to click together side by side:

Each pack (or set of 2 packs if expanded) will get one Batrium LongMon. It should be fully capable of balancing such a system.

If the hivemind has any ideas or things I missed, I’m very interested in hearing about it!

Gemt under: Extern, HAL9k

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29 sep

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Olimex A20-OLinuXino-LIME2 – A review after 4 years in service

Af

Last week my A20-OLinuXino-LIME2 one board Linux computer quit working, with a power supply issue. I looked up when it was purchased, and realised it had been in 24/7 service for almost 4 years. I guess that is a good excuse to do a little review. It even turned out that it the board was fine, but the AC-DC power supply brick could not supply enough current anymore.

The relevant specifications of the board, for my uses, are basically:

  • Dual core 1 GHz ARM Cortex-A7
  • 1 GB memory, 1 Gbit ethernet, SATA connector
  • LiPo battery connector/charger for UPS functionality

The Lime2 has been tasked with running my home monitoring system, consisting of a Debian installation with a Graphite backend, a Grafana frontend, and a ZoneMinder installation. The Graphite database is running on a software RAID0 of two disks (one on SATA, one on USB): in the beginning it was two spinning disks, but after a few years the random 2.5″ laptop disk I was using crapped out, so it was upgraded to a Samsung SSD. The power budget is strained more or less to the max with two spinning harddrives: The system was only able to boot if the battery was connected, presumably because the voltage would otherwise drop for the startup torque. This problem went away after switching to a SSD.

Software wise the system started out with the Debian supplied by Olimex on a SD-card, a Debian pre-Jessie with a custom SunXi kernel. This system was reasonable, but did experience random hangs after some time of use (I belive I found a bugreport back in the day, but am unable to refind it now). The system was later upgraded to a Debian Stretch with a 4.9 kernel from stretch-backports, that supports the SunXi chipset enough for my uses. The upgrade was rather involved,  requiring the correct kernel image, a custom U-boot script and the correct device tree file. Something did of course go wrong, at which point I got to be familiar with the serial console of the Lime2: there is a convenient 3 pin header, that gives access to a TTL serial. Using the serial console, I was able to identify the mistake and correct it. After the upgrade the system has been rock-stable.

The system has been handling the load reasonably: The 1GB of memory is constraining, there is not really any more free memory. The processor is only really strained by the motion detection in ZoneMinder, which uses more or less one core per camera. This will hopefully be optimized a bit, as ZoneMinder is being optimized for the ARM instruction set. Handling only the Graphite/Grafana load would be a breeze, even though the system is receiving ~650 metrics per minute.

All in all, I can recommend the Lime2 board for applications that need a little more umph than a Raspberry Pi, notably on the SATA and Ethernet side, and/or applications that need to be continuously available even after the power cuts out. For applications that need more than one SATA port, or more than one Ethernet port, or on-board Wifi, there are better — and more expensive — options. The price point of 45 EUR + VAT (which did not change from 4 years ago) puts the Lime2 slightly above the price of a RaspberryPi or BananaPi, but below boards like the Apu2. In addition, Olimex has announced that the Lime2 will be available “forever”, making any system designed using the Lime2 future proof — for the foreseeable future.

I ordered a new Lime2, before realising the problem was the power supply. I opted for the industrial variant that is now available. The only change, as far as I’m aware, is that the Allwinner A20 chip is rated for a larger temperature range, and it is 5 EUR more expensive.

Gemt under: Extern, HAL9k

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17 okt

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Reparation af DUKA/PAX Passad 30 Ventilator der kører uregelmæssigt

Af

Vores Duka Passad 30 ventilator var begyndt at køre noget uregelmæssigt. Ventilatoren er ellers ret smart styret af fugtighed og IR-bevægelse, men vi bruger den kun fugtighedsstyret. Den var imidlertid begyndt ikke at kunne starte ordentligt: den reagerede fint på fugt, men motoren stoppede efter få sekunder, for straks derefter at starte igen.

Der var jo ikke andet for end at prøve at åbne den og reparere den; en ny ventilator er relativt dyr, og den kunne jo ikke gå mere i stykker end den allerede var.

Bladene kan hives af direkte ved at hive op i dem, og tragten kan tages af ved at dreje til siden. Der gemmer sig en enkelt skrue under mærkaten på bagsiden. Inden i er et relativt simpelt printkort:

Den eneste chip er desværre en micro-controller af en art, så hvis den er i stykker er der ikke rigtig noget at gøre. Jeg fik en hel del hjælp i Hal9k til at måle på printet, og det viste sig at strømforsyningen ikke var særlig stabil; ca. når problemet opstod steg spændingen. Vi endte med at lodde en ledning på microcontrollerens GND-ben, og kunne så se at VCC-benet faktisk lå ret lavt ved ca. 3V, og at spændingen der faldt når problemet opstod. Ved at måle tilbage i kredsløbet derfra endte vi helt tilbage ved den store kondensator (0,33 uF) der er næsten først i kredsløbet.

Det er dog ikke så nemt at måle kapacitet med kondensatoren i kredsløbet, men alligevel et forsøg værd: målingen var et godt stykke fra 0,33 uF. Med kondensatoren som hovedmistænkt blev den loddet af, og målt alene: værdien var nærmere et antal nF! Altså var kondensatoren gået i stykker. En erstatning blev fundet i en kaffemaskine fra Hal9k’s Limbo hylde, dog en 0,47 uF, men det burde virke:

Den nye kondensator blev loddet i, og problemet var nu væk! Spændingen ved micro-controlleren lå også stabilt, lige omkring 4,8V. Så var der kun tilbage at samle det hele igen, og sætte ventilatoren til, med lidt penge sparet, og en ventilator reddet fra skrotpladsen. Den eneste forskel synes at være at fugtigheds indstillingen nu skal stå lidt anderledes, men om det er pga. en lidt anden spænding eller bare er tilfældigt er jeg ikke sikker på.

Gemt under: Extern, HAL9k

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25 maj

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Ford 3000 Tractor Instrument Voltage Stabilizer – Mechanical PWM!

Af


Some time ago we bought a nice used Ford 3000 tractor (3 cylinder diesel, Chief frontloader). It needed some work, and one of the items was a new wiring harness. After replacing all the wiring everything seemed to work fine, until one day all the instruments just died; this being a mechanical beast everything else kept working. After quite some investigation, I found out that the instrument fuse (the only fuse in the entire system) had blown. Replacing it just blew it again, so something was clearly wrong. This lead to taking out the so-called “instrument voltage stabilizer”, and disassembling it.

Apparently I had connected it in such a way that the arm had raised itself, and was now short-circuiting to the case. I had already ordered a replacement, but only got what was essentially a very expensive connection:

So, what was the mechanism actually doing, and is it essential? After some headscratching at Hal9k the conclusion was that it was essentially a mechanical PWM, with something like this diagram

When the switch is touching the terminal current is flowing from the battery (B) to the instruments (I), but also to ground (E) through the resistor wrapped around the switch arm, causing the metal in the switch to heat up and lift. This breaks the connection, whereafter the switch cools down, and at some point makes contact again. Beautifully simple mechanism! Bending the arm back into position essentially fixed the device, and gave this waveform

I have seen the function described online as “pulsating DC”, which is actually quite accurate. So, I re-assembled the stabilizer with some sealant, inserted in the instrument cluster of the tractor, and it has worked perfectly ever since.

The only question is why it is done this way, if just giving a constant DC voltage from the battery also seems to work? I haven’t looked into it further, but my best guess is that the instruments are using coils to move the dials slowly, and that the PWM will heat up the coils less. In conclusion: If your voltage “stabilizer” is broken, you can probably do without it, or quite easily repair it.

For reference, here are the resistance readings between B-E, and I-E:

Gemt under: Extern, HAL9k

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31 aug

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Measuring high DC supply voltage with an Arduino

Af

For my home-monitoring setup I would like an Arduino to measure the supply voltage it is getting from a DC battery UPS (Uninteruptible Power Supply). Unfortunately (actually by design, but that’s another story), the power supply is 24V, which means it will put out anywhere from 21.3V-29.8V (according to the manufacturer), which is far too much to measure with the Arduino’s 0-5V input range. For simplicity’s sake, lets assume we want to measure a 20-30V voltage. The immediate answer is to use a voltage divider, which will bring a voltage in the 0-30V range into the 0-5V range. The general formula for the resistor divider is:

    \[V_{out} = \frac{R_2}{R_1+R_2} \cdot V_{in}\]

We want V_{in} = 30 to give V_{out} = 5, so

    \[\frac{5}{30} = \frac{R_2}{R_1+R_2}\]

resistordivider Now, just as a sanity check we should calculate the current of the resistor divider, to make sure we’re not converting too much electricity into heat. Ohm’s law gives us

    \[ I = \frac{U}{R}\]

which in this cases gives

    \[ I = \frac{30}{12000} = 0.0025 A = 2.5 mA\]

No problems there. This works okay, but we lose a lot of precision, as only ~1/3 of the Arduino’s range is actually used: the Arduino’s ADC has 1024 different readings between 0-5V, so when reading the 0-30V range the precision is just about 30V / 1024 \approx 0.03 V over the range. If only we could move the lower bound, so that 20V would map to 0V on the Arduino. A wild Zener Diode appears! One use of a Zener diode is as a voltage shifter. voltageshifter Zener diode voltage shifter. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VoltageShifter2.png. The closest Zener diode I could find was an 18V of the BZX79 series. This resulted in the following circuit: zener-voltage-divider which I hacked into my Arduino box. Hacked supply monitoring Now, theoretically the formula for translating an voltage at the Arduino to the supply voltage should be:

    \[Vcc = V_{in} / (4700/(4700+6800)) + 18 = V_{in} \cdot 2.4468 + 18\]

I then did some quick measurements of various input voltages and the resulting voltage at the Arduino pin:
Input voltage Arduino pin
18V 0.32V
20V 1.16V
26V 3.60V
28V 4.41V
29V 4.81V
Plot it into a spreadsheet, create a graph and add a linear regression gives: Now, this formula is a bit different compared to the theoretical one, mainly in the Zener diode drop. However, the datasheet for the BZX79 actually has the 18V C-type (\plusminus 5\%) as between 16.8-19.1V, so this is well within spec. Since this is just a one-off, I’m happy to just use the measured formula, as this will be more accurate. The final precision should be 12V / 1024 = 0.012V. The current should be around I = \frac{U}{R} = 30V/11500 Ohm \cdot 1000 \frac{mA}{A} = 2.6mA, which again is ok.

Gemt under: Extern, HAL9k

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17 jun

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Roomba 500-series Easy Scheduling using an Arduino

Af

DSC_0879
I have a iRobot Roomba 500-series vacuum cleaner robot, but without any remote, or command center or anything; alas, I have to push a button everytime I want the cleaning revolution to start :-(

But no more! It turns out the Roomba can be programmed, quite easily, to schedule automatically, and all you need is:

  • 1 Arduino
  • 2 wires

The Roomba actually supports a serial protocol, the iRobot Roomba 500 Open Interface Specification, that allows remote control, driving, sensoring, and scheduling.

Finding the serial port

Remove the plastic cover. It is easiest to remove the vacuum bin, and carefully pry it off with a screwdriver.
DSC_0882DSC_0884

There should be a 7-pin plug, on the right side. It has the following pinout:

Roomba serial pinout

Roomba serial pinout

Program the Arduino

Use this sketch (download: roombaschedule.ino):


/*
Set a schedule on an iRobot Roomba 500 series, using just an Arduino.
Mads Chr. Olesen, 2015.
*/

const byte currentDay = 3;
// 0: Sunday, 1: Monday, 2: Tuesday, 3: Wednesday, 4: Thursday, 5: Friday, 6: Saturday
const byte currentHour = 2;
const byte currentMinute = 58;

// Schedule
const byte SUNDAY = 0x01, MONDAY = 0x02, TUESDAY = 0x04, WEDNESDAY = 0x08, THURSDAY = 0x10, FRIDAY = 0x20, SATURDAY = 0x40;

const byte daystorun = SUNDAY | MONDAY | WEDNESDAY | FRIDAY;
const byte times[14] = {
3, 0, // Sunday time
3, 0, // Monday time
3, 0, // Tuesday time
3, 0, // Wednesday time
3, 0, // Thursday time
3, 0, // Friday time
3, 0, // Saturday time
};

const int ledPin = 13;

void setup() {
Serial.begin(115200);
pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(ledPin, 0);

Serial.write(128); //Start
delay(1000);
Serial.write(131); //Safe mode, turns off Roomba light
delay(1000);
Serial.write(128); //Start, back to passive mode
delay(500);

//Set day time
Serial.write(168);
Serial.write(currentDay);
Serial.write(currentHour);
Serial.write(currentMinute);
delay(500);

//Set schedule
Serial.write(167);
Serial.write(daystorun);
for (int i = 0; i < 14; i++) {
Serial.write(times[i]);
}
}

void loop() {
digitalWrite(ledPin, 1);
delay(1000);
digitalWrite(ledPin, 0);
delay(1000);
}

You need to modify the variables at the top: set currentDay, currentHour, currentMinute according to the present time.
The pre-programmed schedule is to clean at 03:00 on Sunday, Monday, Wednesday and Friday. You can change this if you wish, by altering the daystorun and times variables.

If you don't modify the schedule, the Roomba should start automatically after 2 minutes.

Put it all together

You should now have a partially undressed Roomba, and a programmed Arduino. Now it is time to connect them. With both unpowered, connect the following:

  • Arduino GND to Roomba ground (pin 6)
  • Arduino TX (pin 1 on e.g. Uno) to Roomba RX (pin 3)

It should look like this:

DSC_0886

Now, the moment of truth. Press the "CLEAN" button on the Roomba, the light should go on. Plug in the USB for the Arduino. The Roomba light should turn off briefly, and after a few seconds the Arduino should blink it's LED. The schedule is now programmed, all done!

Gemt under: Extern, HAL9k

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